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Types of parts suitable for machining center

source: time:2019-10-18 18:10:46

The machining center is suitable for the parts with complex processing, many working procedures, high requirements, various types of ordinary machine tools and many tool clamps, and can be processed only after multiple clamping and adjustment. The main objects of its processing are box type parts, complex curved surface, special-shaped parts, plate and sleeve type parts and special processing.

(1) box type parts

Box type parts generally refer to parts with more than one hole system, internal cavity and a certain proportion in the direction of length, width and height. This kind of parts are widely used in machine tools, automobiles, aircraft manufacturing and other industries. Box type parts generally need to carry out multi position hole system and plane processing, with high tolerance requirements, especially the shape and position tolerance requirements are relatively strict. They usually go through milling, drilling, expanding, boring, reaming, spot facer, tapping and other processes. They need a lot of cutting tools, are difficult to process on ordinary machine tools, have a large number of tooling sets, high cost, long processing cycle, and need to be clamped, aligned and measured manually for many times Because of the large number, the cutting tools must be changed frequently during machining. It is difficult to make the process and, more importantly, to ensure the accuracy.

The horizontal boring and milling machining center is generally selected for the machining center of box type parts, when there are many machining stations and the parts can be completed only when the worktable rotates several times. When the number of processing stations is small and the span is not large, the vertical machining center can be selected to process from one end.

(2) complex surface

Complex curved surface plays an important role in mechanical manufacturing, especially in aerospace industry. It is difficult or even impossible to finish complex curved surface by common machining method. In our country, the traditional method is to use precision casting, so we can imagine that its precision is low. Complex curved surface parts such as various impellers, guide wheels, spherical surfaces, various curved surface forming dies, propellers of propeller and underwater vehicles, and some free-form surfaces of other shapes. These parts can be processed by machining center. The typical ones are as follows:

① cam and cam mechanism

As the basic component of mechanical information storage and transmission, it is widely used in various kinds of automatic machines. Such parts include disc cams with various curves, cylindrical cams, conical cams, barrel cams, end cams, etc. According to the complexity of the cam, three-axis, four-axis linkage or five axis linkage machining center can be selected for machining such parts.

② integral impeller

This kind of parts are commonly used in compressor of aeroengine, expander of oxygen making equipment, single screw air compressor, etc. for such a profile, it can be completed by a machining center with more than four axes linkage.

Mold class

Such as injection mold, rubber mold, vacuum forming blister mold, refrigerator foam mold, pressure casting mold, precision casting mold, etc. Using machining center to process mold, because the process is highly centralized, the finishing of key parts such as dynamic mold and static mold is basically to complete all machining contents in one installation, which can reduce the accumulated dimension error and repair workload. At the same time, the mold has strong repeatability and good interchangeability. The amount of work left by machining to the fitter is small. Where the tool is accessible, it should be done by machining as much as possible, so that the work of the die fitter mainly lies in polishing.

Spherical surface

Machining center milling can be used. The three-axis milling can only use the ball end milling cutter as the approach machining, which has low efficiency. The five axis milling can use the end milling cutter as the envelope surface to approach the spherical surface. When machining complex curved surface with machining center, the workload of programming is large, and most of them need automatic programming technology.

(3) special-shaped parts

Irregular parts are parts with irregular shape, most of which need multi station hybrid processing of point, line and surface. Generally, the rigidity of special-shaped parts is poor, the deformation of clamping is difficult to control, the machining accuracy is difficult to guarantee, and even some parts of some parts are difficult to be finished by ordinary machine tools. When machining with the machining center, reasonable technological measures shall be adopted, clamping once or twice, and multi working procedures or all working procedures shall be completed by using the characteristics of multi position point, line and surface mixed machining of the machining center.

(4) plate, sleeve and plate parts

With keyway, or radial hole, or hole system distributed on the end face, curved disk sleeve or shaft parts, such as shaft sleeve with flange, shaft parts with keyway or square head, etc., and plate parts with more hole processing, such as various motor covers, etc. The vertical machining center should be selected for the disk parts with distributed hole system and curved surface on the end face, and the horizontal machining center should be selected for the parts with radial hole.

(5) special processing

After mastering the function of the machining center, with certain tooling and special tools, the machining center can be used to complete some special process work, such as lettering, marking and pattern carving on the metal surface; the main shaft of the machining center is equipped with a high-frequency EDM power supply, which can scan the metal surface for surface hardening; the machining center is equipped with a high-speed grinding head, which can achieve small size Grinding of module involute bevel gear and grinding of various curves and surfaces, etc.

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